Find out whether you need male infertility treatment

Infertility can be the reason why you and your partner have been unable to get pregnant after trying for more than a year. In cases like these, it is essential for both partners to undergo a fertility assessment at this time to determine the cause and the corresponding treatment plan for it.

When diagnosing infertility in males, it is typical to get a blood test, semen analysis, and physical examination. These procedures help identify the factors that are causing infertility and determine the solutions in overcoming them.

What are the possible complications among males that cause infertility?

The most common male infertility factors include:

Obstructive azoospermia

Obstructive Azoospermia occurs when sperm is being produced in the testes but cannot be found in the semen because of a blockage in the male reproductive tract. In most cases of obstructive azoospermia, sperm can still be retrieved by a form of surgical sperm retrieval or SSR procedure such as Testicular Sperm Aspiration or TESA.

Causes of obstructive azoospermia can include sexually transmitted disease, scar tissue, congenital or genetic conditions or previous surgeries.

Non-obstructive azoospermia

Non-obstructive Azoospermia is when mature sperm are not found in the semen because of a problem with their production. This can occur at different stages of the male reproductive cycle and in some cases a form of surgical sperm retrieval or SSR can be used to retrieve mature and viable sperm.

Causes of non-obstructive azoospermia can include radiation, certain types of medications, infections or hormonal imbalances. Micro-TESE would be advised in cases of non-obstructive azoospermia followed by In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) with Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

Retrograde ejaculation

Retrograde ejaculation is when semen is mistakenly directed back into the bladder as opposed to out of the body through the urethra. Causes of retrograde ejaculation can include diabetes, medication, injury or past surgeries.

In most cases of retrograde ejaculation, sperm can be recovered from a urine sample and used during an In-vitro fertilisation (IVF) / Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. In other cases, sperm can be obtained through a surgical sperm retrieval or SSR procedure such as Testicular Sperm Aspiration or TESA.


Oligospermia refers to when the semen has low concentration of sperm; often this low concentration of sperm is also accompanied by decreased sperm morphology or motility.

Oligospermia can be caused by aging, poor health, varicocele, surgeries, chemotherapy or radiation. Depending on the cause, you may be a candidate for a supplemental hormone regime to help improve quality of sperm before undergoing an In-vitro fertilization (IVF) / Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycle.


A varicoceles is a collection of enlarged veins within the scrotum. It may begin to cause reproductive issues if the valves within the testes cause blood to pool within the scrotum. This pooling of blood affects the circulation and temperature of the testes, leading to decreased motility and poor morphology. As many as 15% of the general population have a varicoceles. If large, it may cause discomfort but often there are no symptoms.

A varicocele can be remedied through Micro Varicocelectomy

Testing and treatment: finding out the possible cause and treating it

For male infertility treatment, it is vital to first determine whether there is an underlying health condition that is impeding the chances of conceiving. Various tests are required to find out if the male spouse is suffering from risk factors, such as decreased sperm production due to lifestyle factors like smoking or physical inactivity.

Some of the tests include semen analysis and blood tests. Through these tests, your doctor will be able to find out whether the problem is with the count of sperm and the way they function, or detect any other complication.

Bourn Hall Fertility Clinic has some of the best doctors and specialists to look over your condition and the entire treatment. With us, you can rest assured that you are receiving premier quality treatment and care.