Genetics is the study of heredity, the process by which a parent passes certain genes onto their children. Every child inherits genes from both of their biological parents and these genes in turn express specific traits. Some of these traits may be physical, such as hair, eye and skin colour. Other genes may carry the risk of certain diseases and disorders that may pass on from parents to their offspring.

A doctor who specialises in genetics can provide diagnostic and therapeutic services to individuals who have genetic disorders or who wish to be assessed for their risks of genetic diseases or conditions.