In Paediatric Neurology, neurological conditions in newborns, infants, children and adolescents are diagnosed and managed. The discipline covers diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.

Conditions dealt with by paediatric neurologists vary considerably, from relatively simple disorders such as migraine or cerebral palsy through to more complex and rare conditions such as metabolic disease or neurodegenerative disorders.