The shoulder joint is highly mobile and relies on coordination between various muscles, tendons and ligaments – yet these traits also make it vulnerable to injury. Shoulder injuries typically involve the rotator cuff. However, osteoarthritis, dislocations, impingement or a broken collarbone can also cause shoulder pain and limit the mobility of the joint. Here is an overview of the structure and problems associated with this complex joint.

  • Bones

  • 1Acromion
  • 2Acromioclavicular joint
  • 3Coracoid
  • 4Humeral head (caput humeri)
  • 5Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint)
  • 6Upper arm bone (humerus)
  • 7Collarbone (clavicle)
  • 8Shoulder blade (scapula)
  • Muscles

  • 9Biceps (biceps brachii)
  • 10Rotator cuff, consisting of:
    • Supraspinatus (M. supraspinatus)
    • Infraspinatus (M. infraspinatus)
    • Teres minor (M. Teres minor)
    • Subscapularis (M. scapular)
  • 11Teres major (M. Teres major)
  • 12Deltoid (deltoideus)
  • 13Trapezoid (trapezius)
  • Tendons, ligaments, soft tissues

  • 14Long biceps tendon (caput longum)
  • 15Bursa
  • 16Supraspinatus tendon
  • 17Ligaments (coracoclavicular ligament)
  • 18Joint capsule (articular capsule)
shoulder Acromion Acromioclavicular joint Coracoid Humeral head (caput humeri) Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) Upper arm bone (humerus) Collarbone (clavicle) Shoulder blade (scapula) Muscles Biceps (biceps brachii) Rotator cuff Teres major (M. Teres major) Deltoid (deltoideus) Trapezoid (trapezius) Tendons, ligaments, soft tissues Long biceps tendon (caput longum) Bursa Supraspinatus tendon Ligaments (coracoclavicular ligament) Joint capsule (articular capsule)